So I don’t think we understand the brain much better for reading this paper. Further work, building on these results, might give insights. We might, say, learn that decreased connectivity between Regions X and Y is because trauma decreases serotonin levels, which prevents signals being communicated between these areas, which is why trauma victims can’t use X to deliberately stop recalling traumatic memories, which is what Y does.
I just made that up. But that’s a theory which could be tested. Much of today’s neuroimaging research doesn’t involve testable theories – it is merely the exploratory search for neural differences between two groups. Neuroimaging technology is powerful, and more advanced techniques are always being developed. What with resting state, functional connectivity, pattern-classification analysis, and other fancy methods, the scope for finding differences between groups is enormous and growing. I’m being rather unfair in criticizing this paper; there are hundreds like it. I picked this one because it was published last week in a good journal.</blockquote>.